[10], Contemporary Paganism has been defined as "a collection of modern religious, spiritual, and magical traditions that are self-consciously inspired by the pre-Judaic, pre-Christian, and pre-Islamic belief systems of Europe, North Africa, and the Near East. This is because that, while Wicca draws on older beliefs and principles, it’s a fairly young and modern religion. Here is a collection of some of the best known gods and goddesses of modern Paganism, as well as some tips on how to make offerings to them and interact with them. Paganism – What are some pagan systems and religions? (3) Freyr – Freyr is the god of fertility. Patti Wigington is a pagan author, educator, and licensed clergy. Originally written by Wiccan High Priestess Doreen Valiente in the mid-1950s, the poem allows Wiccans to gain wisdom and experience deity in "the ordinary things in life". [64] Many Pagans believe adoption of a polytheistic world-view would be beneficial for western society – replacing the dominant monotheism they see as innately repressive. Contemporary paganism has therefore been prone to fakelore, especially in recent years as information and misinformation alike have been spread on the Internet and in print media. Though taken from the Greeks, this grouping of 12 gods has pre Hellenic origins, probably in the religions of peoples from the Lycian and Hittite regions … At the 2001 census, there were a recorded 21080 Pagans in Canada. [121] Their main god is Tura, a deity comparable to the Estonian Taara, the Germanic Thunraz and the pan-Turkic Tengri. Still others say paganism is equivalent to satanism, which is incorrect, but as I said before it all depends on who you ask. Mari fled here from forced Christianization in the 17th to 19th centuries. Contemporary Pagan ritual is typically geared towards "facilitating altered states of awareness or shifting mind-sets". "[109][110], Transgender existence and acceptability is especially controversial in many neopagan sects. Some Pagans have reported experiencing communication with spirits dwelling in rocks, plants, trees and animals, as well as power animals or animal spirits who can act as spiritual helpers or guides. It is simply the concept that one should take the time to do things–including worship and offerings–in a way that is conducive to the demands and needs of the god or goddess in question. Places of natural beauty are therefore treated as sacred and ideal for ritual, like the nemetons of the ancient Celts.[75]. Most modern-day pagans believe in more than one god, while others are atheistic. Caitlyn Dwyer's article, "Meet the modern-day Pagans who Celebrate the Ancient Gods," describes a revival of the ancient Druid religion in America's Pacific Northwest. [3] Most academics who study the phenomenon treat it as a movement that is divided into different religions; others characterize it as a single religion of which different Pagan faiths are denominations. [λ], Canada does not provide extremely detailed records of religious adherence. [157] Further, the New Age movement shows little interest in magic and witchcraft, which are conversely core interests of many Pagan religions, such as Wicca. One well-established modern expression of the ancient Scandinavian belief system is “Asatru.” Some prefer “Odinism” or “Heathenism,” yet the beliefs and worldview are largely the same. Contemporary Paganism r/ pagan. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Neo-Druidry dates to the earliest forms of modern paganism: the Ancient Order of Druids founded in 1781 had many aspects of freemasonry, and has practiced rituals at Stonehenge since 1905. [18] He suggests that part of the term's appeal lay in the fact that a large proportion of Pagan converts were raised in Christian families, and that by embracing the term "pagan", a word long used for what was "rejected and reviled by Christian authorities", a convert summarizes "in a single word his or her definitive break" from Christianity. While the Pagan community has tremendous variety in political views spanning the whole of the political spectrum, environmentalism is often a common feature. Organised by the Department of Religious Studies at the University of Lancaster, North-West England, it was entitled "Nature Religion Today: Western Paganism, Shamanism and Esotericism in the 1990s", and led to the publication of an academic anthology, entitled Nature Religion Today: Paganism in the Modern World. [14] For other groups, all the gods and goddesses are r… "[71], Another pivotal belief in the contemporary Pagan movement is that of animism. [102] Reconstructionism rose in the 1980s and 1990s. These open, unstructured or loosely structured traditions contrast with British Traditional Wicca, which emphasizes secrecy and initiatory lineage. We’ve all heard nightmare stories about the difficulties of being a bridesmaid. Typically, pagans are polytheistic, which means they believe in multiple gods and goddesses, as opposed to Christianity, Judaism, Islam, and other monotheistic faiths that look to one supreme god only. [53], — Religious studies scholar Michael Strmiska[54], Although inspired by the pre-Christian belief systems of the past, modern Paganism is not the same phenomenon as these lost traditions and in many respects differs from them considerably. Although animal sacrifice was a common part of pre-Christian ritual in Europe, it is rarely practiced in contemporary Paganism. The pagan usually has a belief in many gods (polytheistic), but only one is chosen as the one to worship which represents the chief god and supreme godhead. [104], In 1925, the Czech esotericist Franz Sättler founded the pagan religion Adonism, devoted to the ancient Greek god Adonis, whom Sättler equated with the Christian Satan, and which purported that the end of the world would come in 2000. However, many modern Pagans and Wiccans describe themselves as eclectic, which means they may honor a god of one tradition beside a goddess of another. Community. In the first case, there is a deeply felt need to connect with the past as a source of spiritual strength and wisdom; in the second case, there is the idealistic hope that a spirituality of nature can be gleaned from ancient sources and shared with all humanity. Paganism has … The 2001 UK Census figures did not allow an accurate breakdown of traditions within the Pagan heading, as a campaign by the Pagan Federation before the census encouraged Wiccans, Heathens, Druids and others all to use the same write-in term 'Pagan' in order to maximise the numbers reported. Hellenismos is the religiouspath of the ancient Greek, faithfully reconstructed for Pagans in the modernworld. The decentralised nature of Paganism and sheer number of solitary practitioners further complicates matters. (eds), secret underground religion had survived the witchcraft prosecutions, Covenant of Unitarian Universalist Pagans, other expressions of gender and sexuality, Union of Slavic Native Belief Communities, Religious discrimination against Neopagans, The Pomegranate: The International Journal of Pagan Studies, "Invented Culture/Invented Religion: The Fictional Origins of Contemporary Paganism", 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198722250.003.0016, Letcher (2001) "The Scouring of the Shire: Fairies, Trolls and Pixies in Eco-Protest Culture", "How Do Pagans Feel About Homosexuality? Chances are good that someone is listening. [13] Rountree wrote that it was wrong to assume that "expressions of Paganism can be categorized straight-forwardly according to region", but acknowledged that some regional trends were visible, such as the impact of Catholicism on Paganism in Southern Europe. A total of 22,497 people stated Other Religion in the 2006 census; and a rough estimate is that there were 2,000–3,000 practicing pagans in Ireland in 2009. [46], Strmiska nevertheless notes that this reconstructionist-eclectic division is "neither as absolute nor as straightforward as it might appear". Unitarian Universalists look for spiritual inspiration in a wide variety of religious beliefs. Historian Ronald Hutton has argued that many of the motifs of 20th century neo-Paganism may be traced back to the utopian, mystical counter-cultures of the late-Victorian and Edwardian periods (also extending in some instances into the 1920s), via the works of amateur folklorists, popular authors, poets, political radicals and alternative lifestylers. Other manners in which many North American pagans have got involved with the movement are through political or ecological activism, such as "vegetarian groups, health food stores" or feminist university courses. Theologian Jone Salomonsen noted in the 1980s and 1990s that the Reclaiming movement of San Francisco featured an unusually high number of LGBT people, particularly bisexuals. There’s … [ρ] From 2008 onward, conferences have been held bringing together scholars specialising in the study of Paganism in Central and Eastern Europe. There were many gods in Latium, the region in Italy where Rome was founded, some of which were Italic, Etruscan and Sabine.In Roman belief, immortal gods ruled the heaven, Earth and the underworld.As Roman territory grew, its pantheon expanded to include the gods and cults of newly conquered and contacted peoples, so long as they fit in with Roman c… [81] It typically involves offerings – including bread, cake, flowers, fruit, milk, beer, or wine – being given to images of deities, often accompanied with prayers and songs and the lighting of candles and incense. Its statistics service only collects limited religious information each decade. So the question arises, then, of what to offer them? For other uses, see, "We might say that Reconstructionist Pagans romanticize the past, while Eclectic Pagans idealize the future. Join. Paganism has broadly connoted the "religion of the peasantry". [9] A second, less common definition found within Pagan studies—promoted by the religious studies scholars Michael F. Strmiska and Graham Harvey—characterises modern Paganism as a single religion, of which groups like Wicca, Druidry, and Heathenry are denominations. Zordon or some shit. Goddess Spirituality, which is also known as the Goddess movement, is a Pagan religion in which a singular, monotheistic Goddess is given predominance. 'Our Gods and Goddesses Are Closer to Us' How modern pagans are reviving the polytheistic religions of the ancient Greeks, Druids, Egyptians, and other civilizations. [55], Eclectic Paganism takes an undogmatic religious stance [56] and therefore potentially sees no one as having authority to deem a source apocryphal. Notably, Wicca in the United States since the 1970s has largely moved away from its Gardnerian roots and diversified into eclectic variants. By using Learn Religions, you accept our. As Christianity progressed into the present age, a pagan became referred to anyone not being a Christian, and paganism denoted a … Rowman Altamira. Some modern Pagan literature prominently features comparative religion involving European and Indian traditions. Here at Old Norse Paganism being Norse or practicing the Norse Religion isn’t complicated or political; it’s simply falling in love with the Gods, the myths, the culture, the practices, and the traditions of our Norse Ancestors.We’re ordinary people with ordinary lives and ordinary problems, coming together for extraordinary experiences in the presence of the Norse Gods. [62], One view in the Pagan community is that these polytheistic deities are not viewed as literal entities, but as Jungian archetypes or other psychological constructs that exist in the human psyche. Eco-paganism and Eco-magic, which are offshoots of direct action environmental groups, strongly emphasize fairy imagery and a belief in the possibility of intercession by the fae (fairies, pixies, gnomes, elves, and other spirits of nature and the Otherworlds). [54] Strmiska stresses that modern Paganism is a "new", "modern" religious movement, even if some of its content derives from ancient sources. Many of the deities found in Germanic paganism appeared under similar names across the Germanic peoples, most notably the god known to the Germans as Wodan, to the Anglo-Saxons as Woden, and to the Norse as Odin, as well as the god known to the Germans as Donar, to the Anglo-Saxons as Þunor and to the Norse as Thor . It is also fewer than the adherents of Jediism, whose campaign made them the fourth largest religion after Christianity, Islam and Hinduism.[ι]. [56], Dennis D. Carpenter noted that the belief in a pantheistic or panentheistic deity has led to the idea of interconnectedness playing a key part in pagans' worldviews. [δ][ε][ζ], Wicca is the largest form of modern Paganism,[40] as well as the best-known[115] and most extensively studied. Some Pagans believe the universe is god. In addition, it is the annual cycle of life, death, and rebirth of some of these deities that defines the Pagan year. Instead, there existed a … One of the largest movements currently which can be either syncretic or reconstructionist is the revival of Germanic Paganism or “Heathenry.” Modern Germanic Pagans or Heathens, as they prefer to call themselves, worship the old Germanic gods, especially Thor and Odin as well as Germanic nature spirits such as Elves and Trolls. He watches over the community. Here at Old Norse Paganism being Norse or practicing the Norse Religion isn’t complicated or political; it’s simply falling in love with the Gods, the myths, the culture, the practices, and the traditions of our Norse Ancestors.We’re ordinary people with ordinary lives and ordinary problems, coming together for extraordinary experiences in the presence of the Norse Gods. Magenta Griffiths is High Priestess of the Beit Asherah coven, and a former board member of the Covenant of the Goddess. [162] This animosity is flamed by historical conflicts between Christian and pre-Christian religions, as well as the perceived ongoing Christian disdain from Christians. The ancient Greeks honored a wide variety of gods, and many are still worshiped today by Hellenic Pagans. [28] Several Pagan studies scholars, such as Ronald Hutton and Sabina Magliocco, have emphasized the use of the upper-case "Paganism" to distinguish the modern movement from the lower-case "paganism", a term commonly used for pre-Christian belief systems. [25] Doyle White writes that modern religions that draw upon the pre-Christian belief systems of other parts of the world, such as Sub-Saharan Africa or the Americas, cannot be seen as part of the contemporary Pagan movement, which is "fundamentally Eurocentric". [149] Magliocco came to a somewhat different conclusion based upon her ethnographic research of pagans in California, remarking that the majority were "white, middle-class, well-educated urbanites" but that they were united in finding "artistic inspiration" within "folk and indigenous spiritual traditions". Many Pagans hold that different lands and/or cultures have their own natural religion, with many legitimate interpretations of divinity, and therefore reject religious exclusivism. [138] Out of 21507717 recorded Australians,[ο] they compose approximately 0.15% of the population. The thoroughly pagan Greco-Roman world—given to idol worship and adopting gods and practices of other religions … "[1] Thus it has been said that although it is "a highly diverse phenomenon", "an identifiable common element" nevertheless runs through the Pagan movement. Pagan-specializing religious scholar Christine Hoff Kraemer wrote, "Pagans tend to be relatively accepting of same-sex relationships, BDSM, polyamory, transgender, and other expressions of gender and sexuality that are marginalized by mainstream society." Germanic Heathens appear to have three different approaches to … [159], In India, a prominent figure who made similar efforts was the Hindu revivalist Ram Swarup, who pointed out parallels between Hinduism and European and Arabic paganism. [92], The 1960s and 1970s saw a resurgence in Neodruidism as well as the rise of Germanic neopaganism and Ásatrú in the United States and in Iceland. He also had an influence on Western converts to Hinduism, notably David Frawley and Koenraad Elst, who both have described Hinduism as a form of paganism. Modern Paganism or 'neo-Paganism' has the following characteristics: 1. This usage has been common since the pagan revival in the 1970s. The 2011 census however made it possible to describe oneself as Pagan-Wiccan, Pagan-Druid and so on. | Roz Kaveney", "Oh, My Pop Culture Goddess: Transgender Issues in Wicca and Paganism", Arena - Atlas of Religions and Nationalities in Russia, Europe's Last Pagans Worship in Mari-El Grove, "Christians! Reviewing Gérard's book Parcours païen in 2001, the historian of religion Jean-François Mayer described Gérard's activities as part of the development of a "Western-Hindu 'pagan axis'".[161]. While this is by no means a complete list, it's a good place to get started. The gods and goddesses of ancient Egypt were a complex group of beings and ideas. [85] English esotericist Gerald Gardner was at the forefront of the burgeoning Wiccan movement. Many such Pagans aim for an explicitly ecocentric practice, which may overlap with scientific pantheism. [24] Critics have pointed out that such claims would cause problems for analytic scholarship by lumping together belief systems with very significant differences, and that the term would serve modern Pagan interests by making the movement appear far larger on the world stage. [13] But there has been much "cross-fertilization" between these different faiths: many groups have influenced, and been influenced by, other Pagan religions, making clear-cut distinctions among them more difficult for scholars to make. In Neo-Paganism, no one gender is associated exclusively with one sea­son. This is because that, while Wicca draws on older beliefs and principles, it’s a fairly young and modern religion. [μ][ν][better source needed], The United States government does not directly collect religious information. Let's talk about the concept of Appropriate Worship. 8. pinned by moderators. Since the 1960s and '70s, paganism and the then emergent counterculture, New Age, and hippie movements experienced a degree of cross-pollination. BBC Homepage. "[12], Discussing the relationship between the different Pagan religions, religious studies scholars Kaarina Aitamurto and Scott Simpson wrote that they were "like siblings who have taken different paths in life but still retain many visible similarities". You can do it out loud or silently, in a church or backyard or forest or at a kitchen table. And a way to connect with all kinds of people—gay, bi, straight, celibate, transgender—in a way that is hard to do in the greater society. There tends to be some question about what, exactly, is the right offering to make to the gods or goddesses of one's tradition, and how we should honor them when making those offerings. [96], Goddess Spirituality, which is also known as the Goddess movement, is a Pagan religion in which a singular, monotheistic Goddess is given predominance. 8 Common Belief Systems in the Modern Pagan Community, Appropriate Worship - Honoring the Gods the Way They Want. She noted that there are those who would argue that "the Pagan community is one of the only spiritual communities that is exploring humor, joy, abandonment, even silliness and outrageousness as valid parts of spiritual experience". [κ] The overall numbers of people self-reporting as Pagan rose between 2001 and 2011. [70] For pagans, pantheism means that "divinity is inseparable from nature and that deity is immanent in nature". Paganism is a religion of nature, in other words Pagans revere Nature. Pagan religions commonly exhibit a metaphysical concept of an underlying order that pervades the universe, such as the concept of harmonia embraced by Hellenists and that of Wyrd found in Heathenry. A number of Wiccan, pagan and even some Traditionalist or Tribalist groups have a history of Grandmother Stories – typically involving initiation by a Grandmother, Grandfather, or other elderly relative who is said to have instructed them in the secret, millennia-old traditions of their ancestors. [56] Most Pagans adopt an ethos of "unity in diversity" regarding their religious beliefs. Well-known Asatru gods: (1) Odin – Odin is the ruler of Valhalla. And Druidic – exist in relative harmony and say what you wish to say or ‘ ’... Which modern Hellenism is based, was a thousand-year polytheistic theology void of and! The woods of the Pagan umbrella as they are not part of pre-Christian ritual in Europe North! Controversial in many modern paganism gods and Wiccan spirituality is the holistic concept of a universe that is.... Other words Pagans revere nature that Pagans `` strive to re-create in some measure '' such... 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