Mahonia bealei (Fortune) Carrière: Common Name: BEALE'S BARBERRY; LEATHERLEAF MAHONIA: Plant Notes: Yu & Chung (2017) recircumscribed Berberis and recognized the genus Mahonia, where this species resides. It grows up to 10' tall, is upright, and is scarcely branching. Fruits are attractive to birds. Early Spring. CARE Thrives in average, well-drained soils; tolerates sandy sites and clay. Details M. bealei is an upright evergreen shrub with blue-green leaves divided into broad leaflets. Mahonia bealei, also known as Beale's barberry,[1] or Oregon grape,[2] is an evergreen[3] shrub native to mainland China (Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Zhejiang). Status: Not Native Leaflets are sessile have spines and terminal larger than others. This is an informal, multi-stemmed, evergreen shrub with irregular, strong upright stems that have limited branching. EvergreenYellow In the South, this plant will look sickly yellow when grown in full sun. Mahonia bealei is an evergreen shrub that can grow from 5-10 ft. (1.5-3 m) tall. Plants of the Mahonia genus, have long been used as medicine in China, as a treatment for periodontitis, dysentery, tuberculosis and wounds. It is hardy to zone (UK) 6 and is not frost tender. The yellow flowers are eaten or used to make a lemonade like drink. Mahonia bealei, commonly known as Beale’s barberry or leatherleaf mahonia, is an evergreen shrub with pinnate compound leaves which typically grows in a multi-stemmed clump to 4-10’ tall but occasionally taller. (46 cm) long, with 9-13 holly-like leaflets. Nursery Availability Grow more than one shrub together for best fruit production. Showy but weakly foetid, yellow blooms appear in the late winter. Shrub borders. Plants typically reach a height of 5 to 6 with a spread slightly narrower. Fragrant yellow flowers in loose, spreading to pendant racemes (each to 3-6” long), bloom in late winter to early spring (February- April). Mahonia bealei A medium-sized to large, winter flowering shrub related to M.japonica. It is often treated as a subspecies of Mahonia japonica, despite the fact that Mahonia bealei is found in the wild whilst Mahonia japonica is a cultigen and not a wild plant[ An excellent, comprehensive book on scented plants giving a few other plant uses and brief cultivation details. (2.5-5.1 cm) wide. Slopes. There are no illustrations. Easily propagated from cuttings or seed[23] though is considered invasive in the mid-atlantic and southeastern US. Mahonia bealei is established or beginning to establish in the southern United States. A fantastic landscape plant for semi and very deep shade. Mahonia bealei needs to be closely monitored as an invasive species. Mahonia bealei has been used to treat internal viral infections such as strep throat and tuberculosis. Foundations. As is the case with many invasive species, Mahonia bealei was introduced intentionally for purpose of landscaping. [17] This plant can also be used to treat bacterial infections such as dysentery and food poisoning. Mahonia bealei is an evergreen shrub that can grow from 5-10 ft. (1.5-3 m) tall. It has been planted as a ornamental plant throughout Europe and the United States. [14] Mahonia bealei is particularly common in bottomland forests and grows well in shade to partial shade. [13] It has been planted as a ornamental plant throughout Europe and the United States. Shelter from winter winds. Flowers are followed by ornamentally attractive, waxy green fruits which hang in grape-like clusters and mature to blue-black in late spring to early summer. [18] Mahonia bealei is also high in tannins and may help muscle pain, arthritis, and aches associated with fever. Leatherleaf Mahonia (Mahonia bealei) is native to China and a close relative of the barberry. Grown for the bright yellow flowers, and attractive deep green foliage Mahonia are a good plant for many landscaping situations. This plant has no children Legal Status. The Garden wouldn't be the Garden without our Members, Donors and Volunteers. Single specimen shrubs may fruit poorly. Flowers Flowering occurs in late winter and early spring, when fragrant, lemon-yellow flowers develop. It may not flower if it does not receive at least a few hours of sun each day and does not like hot… [5][6], Mahonia bealei is a shrub or small tree up to 8 metres (26 ft) tall. It is in leaf all year, in flower from January to March, and the seeds ripen from April to May. Flowers are borne in an erect raceme up to 30 cm long. Noxious Weed Information; This plant is listed by the U.S. federal government or a state. Makes a great specimen or evergreen screen. Flore des Serres et des Jardins de l'Europe 10: 166. The leaves look like holly plant leaves and are a bit spiny, like those of their relations, barberry shrubs. Leatherleaf Mahonia, also known as the Grapeberry Mahonia, is a very attractive and super-hardy shade-loving evergreen flowering shrub with many special attributes. The key is that the Mahonia is a broadleaf evergreen and should not be subjected to any direct sun when the ground is frozen solid. Leatherleaf mahonia has no serious disease or in… There are no related plants for species Mahonia bealei. This shrub has clusters of fragrant flowers that bloom in late winter and by summer will mature into small fruits that birds love to eat. Mahonia bealei (Fortune) Carrière – Beale's barberry Subordinate Taxa. These are followed in fall by inky blue berries. 1855. Plants will spread by suckering and seed. Leaves are up to 50 cm long, with 4–10 pairs of leaflets, plus a much larger terminal leaflet. Mahonia bealei (Leatherleaf Mahonia) is listed in the Invasive Plant Atlas of the United States. Beal's Mahonia, Leatherleaf Mahonia, Berberis bealei , Mahonia japonica Bealei Group Grows up to 10-12 ft. tall (3-4 m) and 10 ft. wide (3 m). First collected in China (Anhui) by Robert Fortune, the plants were taken to Shanghai, where they were lodged in the garden of Mr Beale to await transportation to Europe. Flowering occurs in late winter and early spring, when fragrant, lemon-yellow flowers develop[12].The fruits are blue colored berries, about a half inch long, that turn bluish black with a grayish bloom. ma-HOH-nee-a BEE-le-eye. [20] Mahonia bealei is not toxic in small amounts, just acidic, these berries could be eaten raw but the seed to pulp ratio is not large enough so most of these berries are boiled and strained. Mahonia bealei. Thomas Chaye Beale, Scottish merchant who became Portuguese Consul to Shanghai in 1851, is a likely candidate according to many historians. Mahonia bealei is particularly common in bottomland forests and grows well in shade to partial shade. Mahonia bealei is an evergreen Shrub growing to 2 m (6ft) by 2 m (6ft) at a slow rate. Mahonia bealei, or Leatherleaf Mahonia, is an evergreen shrub native to China.In nature, the shrubs may reach about 10 feet (3 m) tall and clumps can reach about 5 feet across with great age. It is native to western China. Moderate growing; reaches 6 to 10 ft. tall, 4 to 5 ft. wide. Mahonia bealei is a multi-stemmed, evergreen shrub with irregular, strong upright stems that have limited branching. Young leaves are simmered in water can be eaten. Unless naturalization is desired, suckers should be promptly removed as they appear. Foliage Leaves are pinnately compound, 18 in. Berberis bealei is commonly cultivated; although it rarely escapes, it is locally naturalized in the southeastern United States. Leatherleaf mahonia (Mahonia bealei) won’t resemble any other plants in your garden. Mahonia bealei (Fortune) Pynaert Mahonia bealei (Fortune) Pynaert is an accepted name This name is the accepted name of a species in the genus Mahonia (family Berberidaceae). Mahonia bealei is established or beginning to establish in the southern United States. Very fragrant light yellow flowers. Its stiff, green-blue foliage looks something like holly foliage, and in spring, airy clusters of tiny, golden yellow flowers appear. Grow more than one shrub together for best fruit production. Mahonia bealei Leatherleaf mahonia is a thick shrub with a formal feel. The holly-like leaves are up to 18 inches (45 cm) long, with 5-8 pairs of leaflets. Mahonia bealei ripe fruit are too acidic to eat raw but can be mixed with sugars or other berries. It is native to western China. It has been introduced into the southeastern U.S. where it has escaped gardens and naturalized from Maryland and Virginia south to Alabama and Florida. Mahonia bealei is native to China. Mahonia japonica 'Bealei' Upright then spreading flower panicles (up to 18in long) Mahonia lomariifolia is an erect shrub growing to around 10ft tall with chubby stems and huge distinctive 24in long pinnate leaves with up to 41 sharply toothed leaflets. Scientific Name: Mahonia Nutt. Foliage Leaves are pinnately compound, 18 in. Mahonia bealei has berries that are used in pies, jellies, jams, beverages and confections. [11] Leatherleaf mahonia has a pinnate compound leave evergreen leaves. US States where Mahonia bealei is considered invasive include AL, GA, MI, SC, and TN.[16]. (46 cm) long, with 9-13 holly-like leaflets. "Berberis bealei (Leatherleaf Mahonia, Oregon Grape) | North Carolina Extension Gardener Plant Toolbox", "Beals Mahonie - Mahonia bealei (Berberidaceae)", Carrière, Élie Abel. According to the U.S Forest Service, Invasive species have contributed to the decline of 42% of U.S. endangered and threatened species, and for 18% of U.S. endangered or threatened species. [21] Suggested control methods include pulling the seedlings, cutting the mature plants to stumps repeatedly, and using herbicides.[22]. Mahonia bealei grows slow and in shady areas. Bunches of deep blue- black berries hanging like grapes in spring. It was brought over to Europe from China in the 1800's. The spiny leaves of Mahonia bealei deter them from being eaten by omnivores such as whitetail deer. This shrub has evergreen, leathery fern-like foliage. Its most obvious differences from the type are in shorter racemes and wider leaflets. bealei, M. japonica ‘Bealei’ or M. japonica Bealei Group. [15] The shrub's ability to tolerate many sites, and the fact that birds disperse the berries, has allowed leatherleaf mahonia to naturalize in parts of the United States. Common names are from state and federal lists. A coarse textured flowering shrub, it does best in a somewhat shaded location. Fruit The siting shields the plant from direct sun all through the winter, and allows direct sun on the shrub for only a few hours during growing season days. New flower buds grew rapidly in October. Site in locations protected from exposure to strong winds. Each leaf has 5-8 pairs of narrow, stiff, spiny-toothed, oblong to lance-shaped, dark green leaflets (to 4" long) with a broad terminal leaflet extending to as much as 8” long. Synonymous with Berberis bealei.Genus name honors Bernard M'Mahon (1775-1816), American horticulturist and author of The American Gardener's Calendar (1806).Specific epithet probably honors a person named Beale who lived in China in the early to mid-1800s, but it is unclear today as to which Beale deserves the honor. [19] Fruits are boiled and strained for medicinal preparations. [20] If these berries are fermented and distilled they can make a wine. A part shade to full shade lover, this plant is easily grown in fertile, humus-rich, moist, well-drained soils. It is resistant to infection by Puccinia graminis. No serious insect or disease problems. Mahonia Bealei from Burncoose Nurseries available online to buy - Information: bluish green leaves spotted yellow and white at the base. Grapeberry Leatherleaf Mahonia - 3 Gallon Pot If you're looking to add unique texture and winter color in your shade garden, Leatherleaf Mahonia is a must have plant! Plants labelled as M. bealei with silver undersides to the leaves have been recognized as the cultivar 'Silver Back', though the original Fortune plants lack this silver colouration; 'Silver Back' may represent a different species. Placement does require some thought with this plant. Water deeply, regularly in first growing season to develop root system. The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs) and is pollinated by Insects. Mahonia Bealei is sometimes treated as a separate species to the Mahonia Japonica, and sometimes as a cultivar of the Mahonia Japonica species, under the above name. Fruits hang in grapelike clusters and are glaucous, covered with a white waxy coating[12].The erect stems are stiff and unbranched. Birds eat the seeds of this plant and spread them widely. Leaf spots, powdery mildew and rusts may occur. Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 31(1): 119–120, "Plant Details – Tennessee Invasive Plant Council", "Wild Edible Wednesday 1/9 - Leatherleaf Mahonia", "It is Not Holly | Maryland Invasive Species Council", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Mahonia_bealei&oldid=994601896, Taxonbars with automatically added basionyms, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 16 December 2020, at 15:52. [10] The confusion between M. japonica and M. bealei is reflected in subsequent literature, with the latter referred to variously as M. japonica var. One of the main attraction is the foliage, wonderful texture year round which is a welcome addition to any garden. Mahonia bealei; Phonetic Spelling BER-ber-is bee-LAY This plant is an invasive species in North Carolina Description. Mahonia bealei (also called leatherleaf mahonia or Beale's barberry) is originally from China but has been available to Western gardeners for generations. Best in small groupings in part shade woodland areas. Related Plants. Mahonia bealei, commonly known as Beale’s barberry or leatherleaf mahonia, is an evergreen shrub with pinnate compound leaves which typically grows in a multi-stemmed clump to 4-10’ tall but occasionally taller. Both species are widely cultivated in many countries as ornamentals. Species. Mahonia japonica Despite the name native to Taiwan. They are small shrubs with sprays of dusty green leaves in curiously horizontal layers. Mahonia bealei is winter hardy to USDA Zones 7-9 where it is easily grown in moist, well-drained soils in part shade (morning sun or sun dappled shade) to full shade. With its holly-like leaves and mismatched flower spires, mahonia is a unique plant that looks like it could come from a Dr. Seuss book. Also tolerates full sun (albeit often with some bleaching of foliage colors), but only in the cooler northern parts of its growing range. Abundant grape-like fruits appear in late summer. Fedde, Friedrich Karl Georg. Birds eat the seeds of this plant and spread them widely. Barrier plants (spiny leaves). Single specimen shrubs may fruit poorly. Plants will spread by suckering. [4] The species has sometimes been regarded as the same species as Mahonia japonica, native to Taiwan, but the two differ consistently in certain floral and leaf characters. The berries emerge no later than the beginning of winter, where they are egg-shaped, dark purple and up to 15 mm long.[4][7][8][9][3]. Where is this species invasive in the US. While leatherleaf mahonia can survive full sun, it is best planted in partial to full shade. Screens. This Mahonia is less suited to Western native landscapes because of its unique, exotic character. Bloom Time. Established plants tolerate some soil dryness and drought. Established plants tolerate some soil dryness and drought. It is very similar to M. japonica (native to Taiwan). The plant would make a great specimen or can be grouped to form a distinctive mass in your garden. It grows up to 10' tall, is upright, and is scarcely branching. Because of the unique coarse texture, this plant is ideally suited for Oriental gardens. Leathery, pinnate-compound, holly-like leaves (to 12-18" long) grow in horizontal tiers. Winter hardy to USDA Zones 7-9 (perhaps Zone 6 where planted in protected locations) where it is easily grown in moist, well-drained soils in part shade (morning sun or sun dappled shade) to full shade. Mahonia lomariifolia Mahonia marie – Foliage. 1901. Watch for aphids, scale and whiteflies. It may not flower if it does not receive at least a few hours of sun each day and does not like hot, midday sun in the southern zones. [23] Mahonia bealei site in locations protected from exposure to strong winds. It is very similar to M. japonica (native to Taiwan). It is an erect, evergreen shrub capable of reaching eight feet in height with randomly splayed spreading branches topped by compound, coarse textured, spiny foliage. It was brought over to Europe from China in the 1800's. It's a medium sized bush that reminds you of holly but with compound leaves borne on upright stems. Fortune named the species after Beale in an issue of the Gardeners' Chronicle and was sure it was a distinct species, separate from Mahonia japonica. Also tolerates full sun (albeit often with some bleaching of foliage colors), but only in the cooler northern parts of its growing range. Easily propagated from cuttings or seed. Leaflets are 2-4 in. [9] However, Chronicle editor John Lindley, was unconvinced and repeatedly referred to the new species as Berberis (Mahonia) japonica. [12], Mahonia bealei is native to China. Average Size at Maturity. Mahonia bealei has reportedly escaped cultivation and become established in the wild in scattered places in the southeastern United States from Arkansas to Florida to Delaware. Grows 1012 feet high and 10 feet wide, with strong pattern of vertical stems, horizontal foliage. (Berberidaceae) bealei Carriere. Unless naturalization is desired, suckers should be promptly removed as they appear. Design Ideas. 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